vs Deformable Plate Models
exploration becomes increasingly focused on deep-water continental
margins, there is a corresponding increased awareness of
the importance of plate kinematic analyses and deformable
plate tectonic reconstructions as exploration tools.
Rigid plate kinematic models do not
adequately model the complex multiphase breakup history
of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans.
As continental crust is extended on rifted margins prior
to breakup, there is plate overlap along these margins when
plates are reconstructed using rigid plate kinematic models
Shortening of the crust takes place on convergent margins
resulting in underfit when the plates are reconstructed.
The accurate reconstruction and restoration of plate margins
required a new approach to plate kinematics and a new generation
of plate reconstruction software.
models quantify and accommodate the amount and direction
of crustal stretching and shortening for key tectonic events
at convergent, extensional and transform margins.
Whittaker, R. C. Karpuz. R., Wheeler. W, &
Ady, B. 2000: 4D regional
tectonic modeling [of the North Atlantic]: plate reconstructions
using a geographic information system. PETEX Convention,
Srivastava S. P., &
Verhoef, J., 1992: Evolution of Mesozoic
sedimentary basins around the North Central Atlantic: a
preliminary plate kinematic solution. In J. Parnell (Ed.),
Basins on the Atlantic Seaboard: petroleum geology, sedimentology
and basin evolution, Geological Society, Special Publication,
GeoArctic's deformable plate reconstruction
method advances earlier ideas first put forward by Srivastava
and Verhoef (1992) for the removal of extension at plate
margins. Their approach, however, used a gross estimation
of crustal stretching (Beta) factors from the measurement
of plate overlap, which cannot account for lateral, depth-dependent,
and time-dependent variations in the amount and direction
of extension or movement in the vertical plane due to tectonic
Whittaker et al (2000)
first described a 4D deformable plate reconstruction using
Beta factors calculated from 3D tectonic subsidence maps
as input into GeoArctic's deformable modelling software.
This method has since evolved to include the wide range
of geological processes responsible for basin development
as input into a deformable plate model.Calculations of vertical
movement and lateral, depth-dependent, and time-dependent
variations in the amount and direction of stretching are
stored as 3D surfaces in the PlateDEF model. The information
stored in the 3D surface can be applied to any gridded or
vector datasets such as structure maps, palaeogeographic
maps, wells, licence blocks, and seismic lines, etc. to
restore their geometry through geologic time.